White Paper on National Defence for the Republic
of South Africa
Defence in a Democracy
The 21 June 1995 draft of this document was published by the Minister of Defence with
an invitation to Parliament and the public to comment thereon.
The 27 October 1995 draft incorporated comments submitted by political parties,
non-governmental organisations, the defence industry, defence analysts, and members of the
public and the SANDF.
The 31 January 1996 draft incorporated proposals from the Joint Standing Committee on
Defence (JSCD), as approved by that committee on 23 January 1996.
The 30 March 1996 draft incorporated the Minister's decisions regarding proposals of
the JSCD and further submissions from the Department of Defence.
The 22 April 1996 draft incorporated further comments of the JSCD and the Portfolio
Committee on Defence, and was presented to Cabinet on 8 May 1996.
This document presents, for the consideration of Parliament, the Minister's White Paper
on Defence as approved by Cabinet with certain amendments.
The new Constitution
This document draws extensively on the Interim Constitution. In the light of the
adoption of the new Constitution by Parliament on 8 May 1996, references to the
Constitution in the White Paper will be amended accordingly.
The content of the White Paper will not be affected materially, however, since the new
Constitution incorporates, as transitional arrangements with the force of law, the
relevant provisions on defence in the Interim Constitution.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: The Challenge of Transformation
Chapter 3: Civil-Military Relations
Chapter 4: The Strategic Environment
Chapter 5: Role and Functions
Chapter 6: Human Resource Issues
Chapter 7: Budgetary Considerations
Chapter 8: Arms Control and the Defence Industry
Chapter 9: Land and Environmental Issues
It gives me great pleasure and pride to present the government's White Paper on
National Defence for the Republic of South Africa.
Following South Africa's first democratic election in April 1994, the South African
National Defence Force (SANDF) was established through the integration of former statutory
and non-statutory forces.
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The integration of these forces, many of which were once enemies-in-arms, is a powerful
symbol and practical demonstration of our country's commitment to national reconciliation
Just as the establishment of the SANDF represents the unity of military formations, so
this White Paper reflects a national consensus on defence policy.
The White Paper is the culmination of a lengthy process of consultation following the
tabling of a first draft in Parliament on 21 June 1995.
We received many responses to that draft; we engaged in a lively debate to accommodate
and reconcile these responses; and we were enriched, in particular, by the significant
contributions of the Joint Standing Committee on Defence and the Portfolio Committee on
It is therefore no exaggeration to say that this White Paper is a historic document.
For the first time in our history, defence policy has been shaped by substantial inputs
from Parliament, members of the public, non-governmental organisations and, of course, the
Department of Defence.
For the first time in our history, a White Paper on Defence reflects the interests of
our people and represents a national consensus on this critical function of government.
MINISTER OF DEFENCE
8 May 1996
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1. This White Paper has been prepared in the spirit of the new democratic era in South
Africa. It acknowledges, as its point of departure, the profound political and strategic
consequences of the ending of apartheid.
2. Following free and fair elections in April 1994, South Africa has become a vibrant
democracy. It has a Constitution which outlaws discrimination, enshrines fundamental
rights, and emphasises openness and accountability in the affairs of government.
3. The Constitution also establishes a framework for democratic civil-military
relations. In terms of this framework the Defence Force is non-partisan; it is subject to
the control and oversight of the duly elected and appointed civilian authority; and it is
obliged to perform its functions in accordance with law.
4. After two and a half decades of isolation, South Africa has been welcomed back into
the international community and has joined a host of important regional and international
bodies. The country's foreign relations have been transformed from an adversarial mode to
bilateral and multi-lateral co-operation.
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5. This fundamental shift has been accompanied by a dramatic change in the strategic
environment at domestic and regional levels. While the potential for instability and
conflict remains, the salient fact is that the government is no longer unrepresentative
and at war with its own people and neighbouring states in Southern Africa.
6. The government has prioritised the daunting task of addressing poverty and the
socio-economic inequalities resulting from the system of apartheid. The Reconstruction and
Development Programme (RDP) stands at the pinnacle of national policy and, consequently,
7. The government is equally committed to national reconciliation and unity. One of the
most dramatic illustrations of this commitment is the integration of the former statutory
and non-statutory forces into the South African National Defence Force (SANDF).
8. The White Paper addresses the implications of these momentous developments for
defence policy and the SANDF.
Aim and scope
9. The White Paper presents the defence policy of the Government of National Unity
following a process of consultation with Parliament and the public. Its principal purpose
is to inform citizens and other states, particularly those in Africa, of South Africa's
new defence policy. The White Paper is also intended to serve as a confidence- and
security-building measure in Southern Africa.
10. Defence policy should be in harmony with all other aspects of government policy,
particularly foreign policy and national security policy. It can be described as that
subset of government policy which is concerned with countering military threats; with the
orientation, preparation, maintenance and employment of armed forces; and with the
procurement of weaponry and military equipment.
11. Accordingly, the White Paper considers the following topics:
11.1 The overarching challenge of transforming defence policy and the armed forces in
the context of the Constitution, national security policy, the RDP, and international law
on armed conflict. [Chapter 2]
11.2 Civil-military relations, with reference to the constitutional provisions on
defence; transparency and freedom of information; defence intelligence; the structure of
the Department of Defence (DOD); military professionalism; civic education; the
responsibilities of government towards the SANDF; and the rights and duties of military
personnel. [Chapter 3]
11.3 The external and internal strategic environment and the importance of promoting
regional security. [Chapter 4]
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11.4 The primary and secondary functions of the SANDF. [Chapter 5]
11.5 Human resource issues, including integration; the maintenance of an all-volunteer
force; the Part-Time Force; rationalisation and demobilisation; equal opportunity,
affirmative action, non-discrimination and gender relations; and defence labour relations.
11.6 Budgetary considerations. [Chapter 7]
11.7 Arms control and the defence industry. [Chapter 8]
11.8 Land and environmental issues. [Chapter 9]
12. The Minister of Defence is committed to on-going consultation with Parliament,
political parties, interest groups, non-governmental organisations and citizens in order
to forge a national consensus on military matters.
13. There are several reasons for this shift in emphasis. First, accountability,
responsiveness and openness in government are now constitutional tenets. Second, the SANDF
is a national institution which relies on public support and public funds to fulfil its
mandate. Third, the functions and orientation of the SANDF are necessarily matters of
great public interest.
14. On 21 June 1995 the Minister published a draft White Paper on Defence with an
invitation to citizens and their elected representatives to comment thereon. Over ninety
written submissions were received, and the parliamentary Joint Standing Committee on
Defence held three special sessions on the draft. Comments and proposals have been
scrutinised carefully and, to the greatest extent possible, incorporated into this
15. The submissions and parliamentary deliberations were characterised by substantial
support for the process of consultation, the content of the 21 June draft and the
Minister's intention to effect a fundamental transformation of defence policy.
16. A common concern was the absence of detail in many areas. While this matter has
been addressed, it should be emphasised that the White Paper seeks to establish a broad
policy framework and the main principles of defence in our new democracy.
17. The White Paper will provide the basis for a Defence Review which elaborates on
this framework in considerable detail. The Review will entail comprehensive long-range
planning on such matters as doctrine, posture, force design, force levels, logistic
support, armaments, equipment, human resources and funding.
18. Members of the Joint Standing Committee on Defence and civilian experts will
participate in conducting the Review. A first draft will be published for parliamentary
and public comment and will contain options with respect to the size, roles and structure
of the SANDF. The final product will be presented to Parliament.
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19. Further, the Minister will submit to Parliament detailed proposals on important
matters such as demobilisation and rationalisation; equal opportunity and affirmative
action; military education and training; the Part-Time Force; and weapons acquisitions
20. In addition to the presentation of annual budgets for parliamentary approval, the
Minister will submit to Parliament annual defence reports.
CHAPTER 2: THE CHALLENGE OF TRANSFORMATION
National security policy and the RDP
1. In the new South Africa national security is no longer viewed as a predominantly
military and police problem. It has been broadened to incorporate political, economic,
social and environmental matters. At the heart of this new approach is a paramount concern
with the security of people.
2. Security is an all-encompassing condition in which individual citizens live in
freedom, peace and safety; participate fully in the process of governance; enjoy the
protection of fundamental rights; have access to resources and the basic necessities of
life; and inhabit an environment which is not detrimental to their health and well-being.
3. At national level the objectives of security policy therefore encompass the
consolidation of democracy; the achievement of social justice, economic development and a
safe environment; and a substantial reduction in the level of crime, violence and
political instability. Stability and development are regarded as inextricably linked and
4. At international level the objectives of security policy include the defence of the
sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of the South African state,
and the promotion of regional security in Southern Africa.
5. The Government of National Unity recognises that the greatest threats to the South
African people are socio-economic problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, the
lack of housing and the absence of adequate social services, as well as the high level of
crime and violence.
6. Accordingly, one of the government's policy priorities is the Reconstruction and
Development Programme. The RDP is the principal long-term means of promoting the
well-being and security of citizens and, thereby, the stability of the country.
7. There is consequently a compelling need to reallocate state resources to the RDP.
The challenge is to rationalise the SANDF and contain military spending without
undermining the country's core defence capability in the short- or long-term [Chapter 5].
As a matter of sound organisational practice, any cuts to the defence budget should be
rational and well planned.
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8. The new approach to security does not imply an expanded role for the armed forces.
The SANDF may be employed in a range of secondary roles as prescribed by law, but its
primary and essential function is service in defence of South Africa, for the protection
of its sovereignty and territorial integrity.
9. The SANDF therefore remains an important security instrument of last resort but it
is no longer the dominant security institution. The responsibility for ensuring the
security of South Africa's people is now shared by many government departments and
ultimately vests in Parliament.
Defence in a democracy
10. The theme of this White Paper is the formulation of new defence policy and the
transformation of the Department of Defence. Transformation is essential in the light of
three sets of factors: the history of armed forces in our country; the new strategic
environment at international, regional and domestic levels; and, most importantly, the
advent of democracy in South Africa.
11. The process of transformation will be guided by the following principles of
`defence in a democracy'. These principles derive from the Constitution and government
11.1 National security shall be sought primarily through efforts to meet the political,
economic, social and cultural rights and needs of South Africa's people, and through
efforts to promote and maintain regional security.
11.2 South Africa shall pursue peaceful relations with other states. It will seek a
high level of political, economic and military co-operation with Southern African states
11.3 South Africa shall adhere to international law on armed conflict and to all
international treaties to which it is party.
11.4 The SANDF shall have a primarily defensive orientation and posture.
11.5 South Africa is committed to the international goals of arms control and
disarmament. It shall participate in, and seek to strengthen, international and regional
efforts to contain and prevent the proliferation of small arms, conventional armaments and
weapons of mass destruction.
11.6 South Africa's force levels, armaments and military expenditure shall be
determined by defence policy which derives from an analysis of the external and internal
security environment, which takes account of the social and economic imperatives of the
RDP, and which is approved by Parliament.
11.7 The SANDF shall be a balanced, modern, affordable and technologically advanced
military force, capable of executing its tasks effectively and efficiently.
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11.8 The functions and responsibilities of the SANDF shall be determined by the
Constitution and the Defence Act.
11.9 The primary role of the SANDF shall be to defend South Africa against external
military aggression. Deployment in an internal policing capacity shall be limited to
exceptional circumstances and subject to parliamentary approval and safeguards.
11.10 The SANDF shall be subordinate and fully accountable to Parliament and the
11.11 The SANDF shall operate strictly within the parameters of the Constitution,
domestic legislation and international humanitarian law. It shall respect human rights and
the democratic political process.
11.12 Defence policy and military activities shall be sufficiently transparent to
ensure meaningful parliamentary and public scrutiny and debate, insofar as this does not
endanger the lives of military personnel or jeopardize the success of military operations.
11.13 The SANDF shall not further or prejudice party political interests.
11.14 The SANDF shall develop a non-racial, non-sexist and non-discriminatory
institutional culture as required by the Constitution.
11.15 The composition of the SANDF shall broadly reflect the composition of South
Africa. To this end, affirmative action and equal opportunity programmes will be
11.16 The SANDF shall respect the rights and dignity of its members within the normal
constraints of military discipline and training.
12. The principles outlined above are explored in more detail in the following
chapters. The implications for the doctrine, posture and structure of the SANDF will be
dealt with in the Defence Review.
International law on armed conflict
13. The Defence Chapter of the Constitution contains three Sections which refer to
international law: soldiers may refuse to obey orders in breach of this law; the SANDF
shall not contravene the law relating to aggression; and in situations of armed conflict,
the SANDF shall comply with South Africa's obligations under international law and
14. These provisions reflect the conviction of Parliament and the Executive that South
Africa should conduct its foreign policy as a responsible member of the international
15. There are two main categories of international law on armed conflict: the `law
against war' which relates to aggression and the right to resort to force; and the `law in
war', also referred to as international humanitarian law, which governs the conduct of
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16. The main rule of the law against war is contained in Article 2(4) of the United
"All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use
of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in
any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations."
17. There are three lawful exceptions to this substantive ban on the threat and use of
force in international relations:
17.1 Article 42 of the UN Charter authorises the collective use of force to maintain or
restore international peace and security under the auspices of the UN Security Council.
17.2 Article 53 permits the Security Council to mandate regional organisations to take
enforcement action in certain circumstances.
17.3 Article 51 preserves the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence
if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations.
18. Article 2(4) of the Charter stipulates the following positive obligation:
"All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a
manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered."
19. International humanitarian law is contained chiefly in the Hague Conventions and
the Geneva Conventions and Protocols. These treaties seek to regulate the conduct of armed
conflict, and the rights and duties of belligerent parties, with reference to humanitarian
20. In summary, the treaties outlaw attacks on non-military targets; impose a duty to
protect the victims of armed hostilities; prohibit certain methods of warfare; and contain
restrictions and absolute prohibitions on the use of specific categories of arms (eg
chemical and biological weapons).
21. International law on armed conflict will enjoy primary consideration in the
preparation and execution of military operations. SANDF personnel, particularly at
leadership level, will consequently be instructed on the relevant provisions of this law
22. The SANDF shall be bound by all other international conventions and treaties which
pertain to armed conflict and to which South Africa is a party.
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CHAPTER 3: CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS
1. The Constitution outlines the principles, structures, responsibilities and
relationships which are necessary to secure democratic civil-military relations.
Civil-military relations refer to the hierarchy of authority between the Executive,
Parliament and the armed forces, and to civil supremacy over these forces.
2. The Constitution contains the following provisions in this regard:
2.1 The President shall be the Commander-in-Chief of the SANDF [Section 82(4)(a)].
2.2 The President may, with the approval of Parliament, declare a state of national
defence [Section 82(4)(b)(i)].
2.3 The President may employ the SANDF in accordance with its functions and subject to
the accountability outlined below [Section 82(4)(b)(ii)].
2.4 The President shall immediately inform Parliament of the reasons for the employment
of the SANDF where this relates to the defence of the Republic, compliance with
international obligations or the maintenance of internal law and order [Section
2.5 Parliament may resolve to terminate such employment [Section 228(5)].
2.6 The President shall appoint the Chief of the SANDF [Section 225].
2.7 The Chief of the SANDF shall exercise military executive command of that force
subject to the directions of the Minister of Defence and, during a state of national
defence, the President [Section 225].
2.8 The establishment, organisation, training, conditions of service and other matters
concerning the regular force and the part-time force shall be as provided for by an Act of
Parliament [Sections 226(2) and 226(3)].
2.9 The Minister of Defence shall be accountable to Parliament for the SANDF [Section
2.10 Parliament shall annually approve the defence budget [Section 228(2)].
2.11 A joint standing committee on defence shall be established in Parliament. The
committee shall be competent to investigate and make recommendations on the budget,
functioning, organisation, armaments, policy, morale and state of preparedness of the
SANDF, and to perform such other functions related to parliamentary supervision of the
force as may be prescribed by law [Sections 228(3)(a) and (d)].
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2.12 The SANDF shall perform its functions and exercise its powers solely in the
national interest by i) upholding the Constitution; ii) providing for the defence of the
Republic; and iii) ensuring the protection of the inhabitants of the Republic [Section
2.13 The SANDF shall perform its functions and exercise its powers under the directions
of the government and in accordance with the Constitution and any law [Sections 227(2)(a)
2.14 The SANDF shall conform to international law on armed conflict which is binding on
South Africa [Sections 227(2)(d) and (e)].
2.15 The SANDF shall refrain from furthering or prejudicing party-political interests,
and no member of the regular force shall hold office in any political party or
organisation [Sections 227(2)(c) and 226(6)].
Authority and powers
3. The Constitution outlines a clear hierarchy of authority on defence matters: the
Chief of the SANDF enjoys executive military command of the armed forces; this command is
exercised under the direction of the Minister of Defence in times of peace and under the
direction of the President during a state of national defence; and the Minister is in turn
accountable to Parliament and Cabinet for the SANDF.
4. Parliament has a range of significant powers regarding military affairs in order to
assert democratic control over the armed forces and defence policy. It has legislative
powers, it approves the defence budget, and it reviews the President's decisions to deploy
the SANDF in critical functions. The Joint Standing Committee on Defence has powers of
investigation and recommendation and such functions relating to parliamentary supervision
as may be prescribed by law. The Joint Standing Committee on Intelligence has oversight
powers in respect of defence intelligence.
5. The DOD respects the right and duty of Parliament to exercise independent and
critical judgement on defence policy and practice.
6. The fulfilment of Parliament's responsibilities requires the building of a close and
co-operative relationship between the DOD and the parliamentary committees. The DOD will
provide whatever assistance, information and comments are required by the committees in
order to perform their functions.
7. Parliamentary and public scrutiny and debate will only be meaningful if there is
sufficient transparency on military matters. A measure of secrecy will undoubtedly be
necessary in order to safeguard national security interests, the lives of military
personnel and the integrity of military operations. However, the governing constitutional
principle is `freedom of information'. Exceptions to this principle will be limited,
specific and justifiable in a democratic society, and will be dealt with in legislation.
8. The DOD recognises that it has a positive duty to provide sufficient information to
ensure adequate parliamentary and public scrutiny and debate on defence matters.
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9. The DOD supports the creation of the post of Military Ombudsperson whose main duties
are to monitor adherence to democratic civil-military relations, undertake investigations
at the request of Parliament, and investigate complaints against the SANDF by military
personnel and members of the public. The ombudsperson would be an independent official who
is appointed by, and reports to, Parliament. The powers and functions of the ombudsperson
would be spelt out in legislation.
10. The personnel, logistics and financial functions of the SANDF are closely regulated
and subject to independent audit on a continuous basis.
11. The DOD will establish mechanisms to facilitate communication and liaison between
the SANDF and provincial and local authorities with regard to the internal deployment of
troops. However, these authorities will have no decision-making powers over such
deployment. Command and control over the SANDF will remain centralised at national level.
12. The principles of civil-military relations have special relevance to defence
intelligence. The intelligence legislation which has been promulgated and the RSA
Intelligence White Paper provide for an ethical code of conduct, parliamentary oversight
and executive control in respect of all intelligence agencies.
13. Defence intelligence structures are also subject to the scrutiny of the Inspector
General of the SANDF and the various mechanisms provided for in the new intelligence
legislation. These mechanisms include the National Intelligence Co-ordinating Committee
(NICOC), the parliamentary Joint Standing Committee on Intelligence, and an
Inspector-General responsible for defence intelligence.
14. The Ministry will ensure that a fair and acceptable balance is reached between the
need to protect sensitive information and the demands for freedom of information in
respect of intelligence activities.
15. The main functions of the Intelligence Division of the SANDF are the conduct of
military intelligence and counter-intelligence, and the gathering of external military
information. The primary aim of the latter function is to provide the SANDF with advance
warning of potential military threats and instability, and thereby with maximum time for
defence preparation. An effective intelligence capability is essential as a force
multiplier and to ensure that force levels are kept to the lowest level in times of peace.
Intelligence is also the basis of all defence planning and the conduct of all operations.
16. Intelligence liaison and the sharing of intelligence with other states will be
undertaken in accordance with guidelines issued by the Minister of Defence, in
consultation with the Department of Foreign Affairs, and in co-operation with NICOC.
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17. The National Strategic Intelligence Act provides that where the SANDF is deployed
internally, the Intelligence Division may only gather domestic military intelligence in a
covert manner with the authorisation of the Chairperson of NICOC acting with the
concurrence of NICOC and Cabinet. Such covert collection shall be limited to the
geographical area and time-scales specified in the authorisation.
18. Defence Intelligence structures shall not initiate or participate in any operations
of a non-intelligence nature.
The Department of Defence
19. During the apartheid era the Department of Defence was militarised, with most of
its functions being performed by Defence Headquarters. In the interests of entrenching
democratic civil-military relations, the Defence Amendment Act of 1995 provides for a
restructured Department of Defence which comprises the SANDF and a civilian Defence
20. The Minister of Defence is responsible for the Defence function of government and
is accountable to the President, the Cabinet and Parliament for the management and
execution of this function. The Minister constitutes the civilian authority on military
matters on behalf of Cabinet.
21. The Minister directs and controls performance of the defence function through,
inter alia, the statutory Council on Defence. The Chief of the SANDF and the Secretary for
Defence serve on this body. They have equal status under the Minister, and serve as
co-chairpersons of the Defence Staff Council which tenders advice to the Minister.
22. The respective statutory powers and functions of the Chief of the SANDF and the
Secretary for Defence are governed by the Defence Amendment Act of 1995.
23. The Secretary for Defence manages the Secretariat and will be the accounting
officer of the DOD. He/she is the principal advisor to the Minister regarding defence
policy and matters which may be investigated by the Joint Standing Committee on Defence.
24. The Secretary will perform such duties and functions as may be necessary for
democratic and civilian management of the defence function and to enhance parliamentary
and Ministerial control over the SANDF. The Secretary will monitor compliance with
directions issued to the Chief of the SANDF by the President or the Minister.
25. The Chief of the SANDF executes defence policy, directs the work of Defence
Headquarters and manages the overall functioning and operations of the Defence Force.
He/she is the principal adviser to the Minister on military, operational and
administrative matters within his/her competence.
26. In determining the respective functions of the Secretariat and Defence
Headquarters, there are two basic guidelines. First, civilians formulate defence policy
and the military executes this policy. Second, civilians are responsible for the political
dimensions of defence. This breakdown does not prevent military officers from contributing
to policy formulation on the basis of their functional expertise.
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27. It is intended that a large number of posts, of which the greater number will be in
the Financial Section, will be transferred from Defence Headquarters to the Secretariat.
28. The Minister aims to staff these posts predominantly with civilians. The
composition of the Secretariat will be broadly representative of the racial and gender
composition of South African society. This will be achieved through selective recruitment,
accelerated training, civilianisation of present incumbents and lateral entry. Senior
military officers are not precluded from being seconded to work in the Secretariat on the
basis of their functional expertise.
29. Stable civil-military relations depend to a great extent on the professionalism of
the armed forces. The challenge is to define and promote an approach to military
professionalism which is consistent with democracy, the Constitution and international
30. More specifically, the professionalism required of the regular and part-time
components of the SANDF includes the following political, ethical and organisational
30.1 Acceptance by military personnel of the principle of civil supremacy over the
armed forces, and adherence to this principle.
30.2 The maintenance of technical, managerial and organisational skills and resources
which enable the armed forces to perform their primary and secondary functions efficiently
30.3 Strict adherence to the Constitution, national legislation and international law
30.4 Respect for the democratic political process, human rights and cultural diversity.
30.5 The operation of the Defence Force according to established policies, procedures
and rules in times of war and peace.
30.6 A commitment to public service, chiefly in defence of the state and its citizens.
30.7 Non-partisanship in relation to party politics.
30.8 The building of a South African military ethic based on international standards of
officership, loyalty and pride in the organisation. This will serve as a basic unifying
force which transcends cultural, racial and other potentially divisive factors.
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Education and training
31. Education and training programmes within the SANDF are a cardinal means of building
and maintaining a high level of professionalism. In this regard the Constitution provides
that all members of the SANDF "shall be properly trained in order to comply with
international standards of competency" [Section 226 (5)].
32. At the heart of training is the preparation of officers and other ranks to fulfil
the SANDF's primary function of defence against external military aggression.
33. In addition, special education and training programmes are required to standardise
procedures following the integration of the statutory and non-statutory forces; to
facilitate an equal opportunity programme and upgrade the skills of black soldiers, women
soldiers and other disadvantaged service personnel [Chapter 6]; and to meet the particular
needs of an all-volunteer force [Chapter 6].
34. Specific training programmes will be introduced to prepare military personnel for
regional security co-operation and involvement in international peace support operations
35. Education and training will also play an essential role in developing the political
and ethical dimensions of military professionalism. To this end, the Minister will oversee
the design and implementation of a civic education programme on `defence in a democracy'.
The Minister has established a work group for this purpose. The work group includes
civilian experts and members of the SANDF, the Defence Secretariat and the Joint Standing
Committee on Defence.
36. The mission of the civic education programme is to instill respect amongst military
personnel and other members of the DOD for the core values of a democratic South Africa
through appropriate education and training. These values derive principally from the
Constitution. They include respect for human rights, the rights and duties of soldiers,
the rule of law, international law, non-partisanship, non-discrimination, and civil
supremacy over the armed forces.
37. The programme will cover the following subjects: the key elements of the political
process in a democracy; the constitutional provisions on fundamental rights and defence;
the significance of the Constitution as supreme law; the principles of democratic
civil-military relations; international law on armed conflict; respect for multi-cultural
diversity and gender equality; and the normative dimensions of military professionalism.
38. This programme will extend to all members of the DOD but will necessarily be
tailored according to function and rank. It will encompass short-term orientation courses;
adapting the development programmes of Officers, Warrant Officers and other ranks; and
reorientating tertiary level education and the Military Academy.
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39. The civic education programme will be integrated into all aspects of education and
training rather than be treated as an isolated subject. It will be applied to the military
context through lectures, simulated exercises and case studies. Civic education will also
be regarded as a process which entails the translation of taught values into lived values.
40. The Minister recognises that the programme will have no value if misconduct is in
any way sanctioned by the military or civilian authority. The institutional culture of the
SANDF will only be imbued with respect for human rights and the rule of law if its members
are subject to disciplinary action in the event of abuses.
41. The SANDF, together with the International Committee of the Red Cross, is currently
developing a comprehensive curriculum on international humanitarian law and international
law on armed conflict.
Responsibilities of government
42. South Africa's Constitution, as with other democratic constitutions, seeks to
establish stable civil-military relations by subjecting the SANDF to the control of the
elected civilian authority. Such control is deemed vital because armed forces typically
have a substantial capacity for organised violence.
43. However, the government recognises that civil-military relations will only be
stable if the requisite control is accompanied by the fulfilment of certain
responsibilities towards the SANDF and its members. These responsibilities include the
43.1 The government will not misuse the SANDF for partisan or repressive purposes.
43.2 The government will not interfere in the military chain of command, the
application of the Military Disciplinary Code, or operational matters which are the
authority of military commanders. The Chief of the SANDF shall supervise and exercise
control over operations and preparations for operations subject to the relevant laws,
national policy, parliamentary oversight and the directions of the Minister and/or the
43.3 The government will take account of the professional views of senior officers in
the process of policy formulation and decision-making on defence. This input is assured
through the Defence Staff Council, the Council on Defence and the structure of the DOD.
43.4 The government will request from Parliament sufficient funds to enable the SANDF
to perform its tasks effectively and efficiently.
43.5 The government will seek to ensure that military personnel are adequately
remunerated. It will also ensure that demobilised and rationalised soldiers, as well as
veterans from the former statutory and non-statutory forces, are properly integrated into
civilian society. The Chairperson of the Council of Military Veterans' Organisations
serves as the Minister's adviser on military veterans affairs. A directorate for military
veterans affairs will be established within the Defence Secretariat.
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43.6 The government will not endanger the lives of military personnel through improper
deployment or the provision of inadequate or inferior weapons and equipment.
43.7 The government shall make every effort to secure the safe release of military
personnel who are captured in the course of official duty by enemy forces.
Rights and duties of military personnel
44. Members of the SANDF are citizens and therefore enjoy the same fundamental rights
as civilians. Certain exceptions to this principle will be necessary because of the unique
nature of armed forces and military service. The exceptions will be limited and specific,
and will be covered in defence legislation.
45. The exceptions will also be subject to the constitutional provisions on limitation
of fundamental rights. Such limitations are only permissible if they are reasonable,
justifiable in an open and democratic society, and do not negate the essential content of
the right in question.
46. Military personnel are entitled to vote and to be members of the political party of
their choice. However, as noted above, the Constitution provides that no member of the
Regular Force shall hold office in any political party or political organisation.
47. Military personnel shall not attend political meetings in uniform save where they
are on official duty.
48. The Constitution provides that a member of the SANDF "shall be obliged to
comply with all lawful orders but shall be entitled to refuse to execute any order if the
execution of such order would constitute an offence or would breach international law on
armed conflict binding on the Republic" [Section 226(7)]. Military personnel shall be
obliged to report unlawful orders and actions to an appropriate military authority.
49. The constitutional provision stated above will be applied strictly and its
implications for military operations will be conveyed to all officers, warrant-officers
and other ranks in the course of their training and education.
50. In accordance with the Constitution, the SANDF shall promote freedom of religion
and shall cater for the different religious views of its members on an
inter-denominational basis. Religious observances shall be conducted on an equitable
basis, and attendance at such observances shall be free and voluntary. The Chaplains
Service shall regulate religious policy and practice in accordance with departmental
policy and in consultation with the Religious Advisory Boards which represent different
51. The SANDF shall respect the constitutional provision on language and shall
endeavour to cater for the different languages of its members. Instruction, command and
control shall be conducted in a language that is commonly understood by all.
[ Top ]
52. In accordance with the Constitution, the SANDF shall not discriminate against any
of its members on the grounds of sexual orientation.
53. The Minister shall appoint a work group to facilitate and monitor the
implementation of the policy outlined above regarding religion, language and sexual
54. The Military Disciplinary Code is currently being revised to bring it into line
with the Constitution. The unique requirements of the military justice system will be
taken into account.
Relations with civil society
55. The SANDF shall conduct itself with honour and dignity, and shall abide by the
provisions of the Bill of Fundamental Rights, in its interaction with civil society.
Military personnel shall treat civilians with courtesy and respect in the performance of
56. The Minister and the DOD shall consult with interest groups and stakeholders in
civil society in the formulation of defence policy, and shall provide the public with
adequate information on defence matters.
CHAPTER 4: THE STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT
The global context
1. The ending of apartheid and the establishment of democracy have given rise to
dramatic changes in the external strategic environment from the perspective of South
Africa. The country is no longer isolated internationally. It has been welcomed into many
international organisations, most importantly the United Nations (UN), the Organisation of
African Unity (OAU) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
2. South Africa is in fact expected to play an active role in these forums, especially
with regard to peace and security in Africa and in Southern Africa in particular. There
are expectations that South Africa will become involved in multi-national peace support
operations on the continent.
3. South Africa does not now, and will not in the future, have aggressive intentions
towards any state. It is not confronted by an immediate conventional military threat, and
does not anticipate external military aggression in the short- to medium-term (+/- 5
4. The longer term future cannot be determined with any degree of certainty because
international relations are unpredictable. They are characterised by both co-operation and
competition around political, military, economic, environmental and other issues. There is
the risk of armed hostilities in some parts of the world, and a high level of political
cohesion in others.
5. A number of prominent trends in the international system are discernible since the
ending of the Cold War:
5.1 The vast majority of armed conflicts are taking place within, rather than between,
states. They arise from internal ethnic, religious and other divisions, and in some
instances have led to the disintegration of states. Such conflicts are increasingly being
regarded as regional and international concerns.
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5.2 There is a tendency towards greater interdependence, regionalism and
internationalism. New regional blocs and international organisations have been formed,
with particular emphasis on the facilitation of inter-state trade.
5.3 The developments outlined above, together with global media and communications
systems, present a profound challenge to the notion of the `sanctity' of state sovereignty
and national borders.
5.4 There is a major fault line between the countries of the North and those of the
South, as the latter become progressively poorer. Moreover, there is widespread concern
amongst African leaders that the continent has been marginalised in world political and
5.5 There has been a reorientation of thinking on `security' and `threats to security'.
These concepts are now viewed in a holistic way. As outlined in Chapter 2, the security of
people and the non-military dimensions of security have gained prominence.
5.6 The UN Security Council, no longer frustrated by the exercise of the veto, has
become increasingly active in a number of areas, especially peace operations, humanitarian
assistance, and control of conventional armaments and weapons of mass destruction.
5.7 The ending of the Cold War has resulted in a substantial decline in the volume of
global arms sales. This had led to efforts, with mixed results, to convert armaments
industries to civilian production. At the same time, the major arms suppliers are
offloading surplus stock at a relatively cheap price in the developing world, compounding
the problem of arms proliferation.
6. The following conclusions for the defence sector are drawn from this overview of the
6.1 The absence of a foreseeable conventional military threat provides considerable
space to rationalise, redesign and `rightsize' the SANDF. The details of this process will
be spelt out in the Defence Review.
6.2 The SANDF has to maintain a core defence capability because of the inherent
unpredictability of the future. Such capability cannot be created from scratch if the need
suddenly arises. The maintenance and development of weapons systems is necessarily a
long-term endeavour. The concept of a core defence capability is discussed in Chapter 5.
6.3 Within budgetary constraints, the DOD will engage in co-operative ventures with its
counterparts throughout the world in such fields as training and education, defence
planning, exchange visits, combined exercises and procurement of arms and equipment.
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6.4 For political, strategic and geographic reasons, defence co-operation with other
Southern African states is a priority. South Africa will seek to strengthen the security
and defence forums of SADC. The question of regional security is discussed in more detail
6.5 As a responsible member of the international community, South Africa will conduct
its foreign policy, arms trade and external defence activities in accordance with
international law and norms. South Africa is a member of a number of multi-lateral arms
control regimes, and has recently introduced new policy on national arms control. [Chapter
The regional context
7. The most significant strategic development over the past few years is South Africa's
new status in Southern Africa, previously an arena of intense conflict. With the election
of the Government of National Unity, relations with neighbouring states have changed from
suspicion and animosity to friendship and co-operation.
8. The region as a whole has undergone substantial change since the end of the Cold
War. Considerable progress has been made towards the resolution of internal conflicts, the
establishment of democratic political systems, and demilitarisation and disarmament. The
prospects for regional peace and stability are greater today than at any other time in
9. Nevertheless, much of the sub-continent is stricken by chronic underdevelopment and
the attendant problems of poverty, illiteracy and unemployment. There are large numbers of
refugees and displaced people; an acute debt crisis; widespread disease and environmental
degradation; and a proliferation of small arms. Certain states remain politically
volatile. The worst case scenario, as was experienced most intensely in Angola and
Mozambique, is civil war.
10. These phenomena are not confined to national borders. They impact negatively on
neighbouring states in the form of a range of non-military threats: environmental
destruction, the spread of disease, the burden of refugees, and cross-border trafficking
in drugs, stolen goods and small arms.
11. Regional instability and underdevelopment can only be addressed meaningfully
through political reform, socio-economic development and inter-state co-operation in these
spheres. Similarly, the prevention and management of inter- and intra-state conflict is
primarily a political and not a military matter.
12. Following trends in other parts of the world, South Africa will encourage the
development of a multi-lateral `common security' approach in Southern Africa. In essence,
the SADC states should shape their political, security and defence policies in
co-operation with each other. This does not preclude the conclusion of bilateral and
trilateral security agreements.
13. A common approach to security in Southern Africa is necessary for a number of
reasons. First, many of the domestic threats to individual states are shared problems and
impact negatively on the stability of neighbouring countries.
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14. Second, it is possible that inter-state disputes could emerge in relation to
refugees, trade, foreign investment, natural resources and previously suppressed
15. Third, since the sub-continent is politically volatile and its national and
regional institutions are relatively weak, internal conflicts could give rise to
cross-border tensions and hostilities. This volatility and weakness also makes the region
vulnerable to foreign interference and intervention from land, sea and air.
16. Common security arrangements would have many advantages in this context. They could
facilitate the sharing of information, intelligence and resources; the early warning of
potential crises; joint problem-solving; implementing confidence- and security-building
measures (CSBMs); negotiating security agreements and treaties; and resolving inter-state
conflict through peaceful means.
17. Certain of these endeavours are the responsibility of the Department of Foreign
Affairs. Chief amongst them is the settlement of conflict through preventive diplomacy,
mediation or arbitration.
18. Other types of activity, some of which are under discussion in the newly formed
security and defence forums of SADC, will be undertaken by the DOD.
19. First, regional defence co-operation could be promoted in the fields of logistics;
training and education; intelligence; combined exercises; secondment of personnel; and the
development of common doctrines and operational procedures.
20. Second, the government might be called upon by neighbouring countries to play a
number of supportive roles. For example, the SANDF could provide assistance with respect
to disaster relief; controlling cross-border trafficking in small arms; clearing
minefields; military training; and maintaining and upgrading weaponry and equipment.
21. Third, the DOD is keen to pursue the implementation of CSBMs. These are measures
which provide for greater transparency in military matters in order to alleviate possible
mistrust, prevent misunderstandings from developing into crises, and thereby promote
collective confidence and stability.
22. Appropriate CSBMs might include the following:
22.1 Annual consultation and exchange of information on defence budgets, force
structure, modernisation plans and troop deployment.
22.2 Consideration of national threat perceptions which inform force structure and
22.3 The establishment of a regional arms register which records information on
imports, exports, production and holdings of conventional arms and light weaponry.
22.4 Notification and on-site observation of military exercises and other specified
[ Top ]
22.5 Verification procedures in respect of the above.
22.6 A communications network and a `crisis hotline'.
22.7 Procedures for dealing with unusual or unscheduled military incidents.
23. Situations may arise in Southern Africa where inter- or intra-state conflict poses
a threat to peace and stability in the region as a whole. If political efforts to resolve
the conflict are unsuccessful, it may become necessary to deploy the SANDF in
multi-national peace support operations. [Chapter 5]
24. South Africa shares the view of many of its neighbours that the creation of a
standing peacekeeping force in the region is neither desirable nor practically feasible.
It is far more likely that the SADC countries will engage in ad-hoc peace support
operations if the need arises.
25. Nevertheless, the SADC states are committed to regional co-operation in preparing
for peace support operations. It may therefore be worthwhile to establish a small peace
support operations centre, under the auspices of regional defence structures, to develop
and co-ordinate planning, training, logistics, communication and field liaison teams for
26. South Africa will support the conclusion of multi-lateral treaties on disarmament,
conventional arms control, the prohibition of weapons of mass destruction, and foreign
military involvement in the region. The most important agreement would be a non-aggression
pact which endorses the international prohibition on the threat or use of force.
27. Given South Africa's relative military strength on the sub-continent, the adoption
of a defensive and non-threatening posture would contribute to building confidence and
28. Further, reductions in South Africa's force levels and weapons holdings might
stimulate a broader process of disarmament in Southern Africa. This would release
resources for development and thereby promote stability. However, force reductions should
be kept within reasonable proportions if South Africa is to play an active supportive role
in the region.
29. Finally, South Africa has a common destiny with Southern Africa. Domestic peace and
stability will not be achieved in a context of regional instability and poverty. It is
therefore in South Africa's long-term security interests to pursue mutually beneficial
relations with other SADC states and to promote reconstruction and development throughout
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The domestic context
30. From a security perspective there are three prominent trends at domestic level.
First, as noted in Chapter 2, there is an overwhelming need for socio-economic development
and reconstruction in order to address the root causes of much personal insecurity and
social instability. This is both a moral obligation and a strategic imperative.
31. Second, South Africa is characterised by endemic crime and criminal violence which
affects all sectors of society and is exacerbated by the proliferation of small arms in
private hands. The government is tackling this problem through efforts to strengthen the
criminal justice system, community policing and crime prevention strategies. A long-term
solution lies in upgrading the conditions of impoverished communities through the RDP.
32. Third, there has been a considerable reduction in the level of public and political
violence since the elections in April 1994. Nevertheless, violence in certain parts of the
country remains unacceptably high and poses a serious threat to public order and the
security of citizens.
33. Public order policing is primarily the responsibility of the South African Police
Service (SAPS). However, given the relative shortage of police personnel, large numbers of
troops are currently deployed to assist them. This tendency is undesirable. As motivated
in Chapter 5, it is a matter of urgency that plans are formulated to allow for the
withdrawal of the SANDF from a policing role.
CHAPTER 5: ROLE AND FUNCTIONS
1. The Constitution provides that the SANDF may be employed in the following functions:
1.1 for service in the defence of the Republic, for the protection of its sovereignty
and territorial integrity;
1.2 for service in compliance with the international obligations of the Republic with
regard to international bodies and other states;
1.3 for service in the preservation of life, health or property;
1.4 for service in the provision or maintenance of essential services;
1.5 for service in the upholding of law and order in the Republic in co-operation with
the South African Police Service under circumstances set out in law where the Police
Service is unable to maintain law and order on its own; and
1.6 for service in support of any department of state for the purpose of socio-economic
2. It is the policy of government that the above functions do not carry equal weight.
The primary function of the SANDF is to defend South Africa against external military
aggression. The other functions are secondary.
3. The size, design, structure and budget of the SANDF will therefore be determined
mainly by its primary function. However, provision will have to be made for the special
requirements of internal deployment and international peace support operations.
4. The rest of this Chapter considers the various functions of the Defence Force in
[ Top ]
5. Governments have an inherent right and responsibility to ensure the protection of
the state and its people against external military threats. South Africa will employ the
following principal strategies to this end:
5.1 Political, economic and military co-operation with other states. In this context, a
common security regime, regional defence co-operation and confidence- and
security-building measures in Southern Africa are particularly important. [Chapter 4]
5.2 The prevention, management and resolution of conflict through non-violent means.
Conflict resolution, in the form of diplomacy, mediation or arbitration, may take place on
a bilateral basis or under the auspices of an international or regional body.
5.3 The deployment of the Defence Force. The use or threat of force against external
military aggression is a legitimate measure of last resort when political solutions have
6. It is clear from the above that the government's preferred and primary course of
action is to prevent conflict and war. South Africa will only turn to military means when
deterrence and non-violent strategies have failed.
7. Deterrence requires the existence of a defence capability which is sufficiently
credible to inhibit potential aggressors. Although South Africa is not confronted by any
foreseeable external military threat, this capability cannot be turned on and off like a
tap. It is therefore necessary to maintain a core defence capability.
8. A core defence capability includes a balanced and sustainable nucleus with the
8.1 the ability to deal with small-scale contingencies of a short-term nature;
8.2 the ability to deal with a range of contingencies;
8.3 the ability to expand the size of the Defence Force to appropriate force levels
within a realistic warning period should the threat situation deteriorate significantly;
8.4 the maintenance and, where necessary, the adequate and appropriate upgrading or
replacement of equipment and weaponry; and
8.5 an effective intelligence capability to ensure early warning of potential conflicts
9. This `core force' approach takes account of government spending priorities and the
fact that the self-defence problem is likely to be limited in the short- to medium-term.
It does not require a large standing force. Instead, the SANDF will comprise a relatively
small Regular Force and a sufficiently large Part-Time Force [Chapter 6].
[ Top ]
10. The Defence Review will address in more detail the implications of the core force
approach for the size, doctrine, posture, structure, weaponry, equipment and other
features of the SANDF.
11. The Review will also address the strategic and technical implications of the
constitutional provision that the SANDF shall be "primarily defensive in the exercise
or performance of its powers and functions". As noted earlier, the adoption of a
defensive and non-threatening military posture will contribute to promoting confidence and
positive relationships in Southern Africa.
Deployment in co-operation with the SA Police Service
12. It was noted in Chapter 4 that SANDF troops are currently employed on a widespread
basis in support of the SAPS, and that such employment is likely to persist for some time
because of on-going public violence and the relative shortage of police personnel.
13. In order to ensure effective deployment and maximum co-operation, the following
steps should be taken before the SANDF is deployed alongside the SAPS:
13.1 the creation of a formal liaison committee incorporating the relevant structures;
13.2 analysis and determination of the role definition, method of deployment and
responsibilities of the SANDF;
13.3 the establishment of a clear chain of command and control, a code of conduct and
appropriate rules of engagement;
13.4 agreement on the duration of the SANDF deployment; and
13.5 a thorough review of the deployment if the objective of the mission is not
achieved within the agreed time-scale.
14. Notwithstanding the above, the history of South Africa and many other countries
suggests that it is inappropriate to utilise armed forces in a policing role on a
permanent or semi-permanent basis. This perspective is based on the following
14.1 Armed forces are not trained, orientated or equipped for deployment against
civilians. They are typically geared to employ maximum force against an external military
14.2 On-going employment in a law and order function invariably leads to the defence
force becoming increasingly involved in non-military activities.
14.3 Such employment may also undermine the image and legitimacy of the defence force
amongst sections of the population.
14.4 Internal deployment places a substantial burden on the defence budget.
14.5 It also has a disruptive effect on the economy where large numbers of part-time
soldiers are engaged.
14.6 Efforts to apply military solutions to political problems are inherently limited
and invariably lead to acts of repression.
[ Top ]
15. In the light of these considerations, the policy goal of the government is to build
the capacity of the police to deal with public violence on their own while political
solutions are being sought or have failed. The SANDF would then only be deployed in the
most exceptional circumstances, such as a complete breakdown of public order beyond the
capacity of the SAPS, or a state of national defence.
16. In order to achieve this goal, financial resources for maintaining internal
stability should be allocated to enhancing the capacity of the SAPS. Further, and as a
matter of urgency, the Departments of Defence and Safety and Security will establish a
work group to devise strategies for the withdrawal of the SANDF from an on-going policing
17. The internal employment of the military will be subject to parliamentary control
and the constitutional provisions on fundamental rights, and will be regulated by
legislation. Officers and other ranks deployed in internal operations will be equipped and
18. The SANDF is currently employed in border protection in co-operation with the
police. Those activities which relate to combatting crime and controlling the flow of
illegal arms and immigrants into South Africa are more properly the responsibility of the
SAPS. This matter will similarly be reviewed by the Departments of Defence and Safety and
International peace support operations
19. As a fully fledged member of the international community, South Africa will fulfil
its responsibility to participate in international peace support operations.
20. There are two types of peace support operations in which the SANDF may become
involved: i) peacekeeping, which entails military operations undertaken without resort to
force and with the consent of the major parties to a dispute in order to monitor and
facilitate the implementation of a peace agreement; and ii) peace enforcement, which
entails the application or threat of force, pursuant to international authorisation, in
order to compel compliance with resolutions or sanctions designed to maintain or restore
peace and order.
21. In the short-term, such participation will be regarded with a fair measure of
caution since the political and military dynamics of these operations are new to South
Africa and the Defence Force. Further, the integration of the former statutory and
non-statutory forces is still underway.
22. In order to prepare properly for peace support operations, the SANDF is currently
investigating the development of appropriate doctrines, operational procedures and
training programmes in co-operation with foreign partners.
23. Public awareness and parliamentary debate on the complexities and different types
of peace support operations is equally important.
24. South Africa will only become involved in specific peace support operations if the
following conditions are met:
[ Top ]
24.1 There should be parliamentary approval and public support for such involvement.
This will require an appreciation of the associated costs and risks, including the
financial costs and risk to the lives of military personnel.
24.2 The operation should have a clear mandate, mission and objectives.
24.3 There should be realistic criteria for terminating the operation.
24.4 The operation should be authorised by the United Nations Security Council.
24.5 Operations in Southern Africa should be sanctioned by SADC and should be
undertaken together with other SADC states rather than conducted on a unilateral basis.
Similarly, operations in Africa should be sanctioned by the Organisation of African Unity.
25. South Africa's consideration of involvement in specific peace support operations
will not be limited to the possible deployment of troops. The involvement could also take
the form of providing equipment, logistical support, engineering services, communications
systems and medical personnel and facilities.
26. The acquisition and maintenance of military equipment shall take account of the
particular requirements of peace support operations.
Other defence functions
27. As noted earlier, the Constitution provides that the SANDF may be employed in a
range of activities in addition to those discussed above.
28. These activities include disaster relief; the provision and maintenance of
essential services; search and rescue; evacuation of South African citizens from high
threat areas; protection of maritime and marine resources; and regional defence
29. It should be stressed again that these are secondary functions. They arise from the
unique capability of the Defence Force. Inappropriate use of military forces in
non-military activities is economically inefficient.
30. The government is disinclined to employ the SANDF in socio-economic development.
Such employment blurs the distinction between the military and civilian spheres; it
contributes to the militarisation of civil society; it undermines the preparedness and
capabilities of the force with respect to its primary function; and it may undermine the
image of the SANDF in the eyes of sections of the population.
31. However, there may be exceptional circumstances which mitigate against the delivery
of services by line function departments. The support of the SANDF may be required as a
matter of urgency because of its specialised skills and resources. An example of this
might be assisting with emergency provision of water to a rural community.
[ Top ]
32. The following guidelines will govern these situations: the employment should be
requested of the DOD by the relevant government department; it should have the consent of
the affected community; it should have a limited time duration; and it should be subject
to civilian control.
33. Finally, the SANDF can make an important contribution to developing human resources
through its education and training programmes. Special training programmes are associated
with integration, demobilisation and rationalisation. For example, the Service Corps will
train its members in a range of vocational and other skills to prepare them for employment
in civil society [Chapter 6].
CHAPTER 6: HUMAN RESOURCE ISSUES
1. The integration of former government, homeland and guerilla forces, many of which
were once enemies, is a powerful illustration of the government's commitment to national
reconciliation, unity and transformation.
2. The integration process, which began immediately after the elections in 1994, has
two legs: integrating into the SANDF all personnel whose names appear on the Certified
Personnel Registers of the statutory and non-statutory forces identified in the
Constitution (with the subsequent inclusion of APLA); and the education and training of
all members of the SANDF to meet international standards of competence and
professionalism. The second leg includes the civic education programme on democracy
described in Chapter 3.
3. Bridging and supplementary programmes have been designed to empower members of the
SANDF, irrespective of origin, so that they stand an equal chance of demonstrating their
suitability for the rank and mustering which they hold when rationalisation occurs.
4. The DOD has three governing principles for integration: all members of the SANDF
shall be treated with respect and dignity; integration shall proceed in a spirit of
partnership; and, as required by the Constitution, there shall be no discrimination.
5. The overarching goal is to establish a new institution which is professional,
efficient, effective and broadly representative. Representativeness refers to the racial,
and gender composition of the SANDF and to the fair integration and equitable
representation of the constituent integrating forces at all ranks. Failure to meet this
goal will critically undermine the legitimacy of the SANDF.
6. Thus far the process of integration has not been easy or trouble-free. Numerous
problems and grievances have emerged and, at times, have given rise to serious tension.
Many of these difficulties were inevitable given the political and logistical complexities
of merging forces. Nevertheless, the DOD is committed to preventing and managing such
problems and tension in a constructive way.
7. To this end, a ministerial Integration Oversight Committee has been established to
monitor the process and adherence to policy; the Committee includes members of the SANDF,
the Defence Secretariat and the Joint Standing Committee on Defence. Integration
committees also exist at Defence Headquarters and Arms of Service levels. A British
Military Advisory and Training Team (BMATT) is responsible for ensuring the fairness of
[ Top ]
An all-volunteer force
8. The previous system of white conscription was divisive and costly. The continued
enforcement of this system would be discriminatory and contrary to the Constitution. A
moratorium has therefore been placed on the prosecution of conscripts who do not respond
positively to call-ups.
9. For political, strategic and economic reasons, the SANDF will be an all-volunteer
force. It will comprise a relatively small Regular Force, including a civilian component,
which is backed up by a sufficiently large Part-Time Force. The regular component has
different categories of employment, including a flexible term service system for uniformed
10. There is also a Controlled Reserve which consists of trained personnel who have
done military service but have since left the SANDF, and all such persons whose names
appear on the Certified Personnel Registers. If required, these people can still be
utilised on a voluntary basis.
11. A basic structure of this nature is extremely cost-effective and allows for
flexibility in force levels according to the internal and external security environment.
It will be capable of dealing with potential aggressors but is essentially defensive in
nature. It will also provide on-going interaction between `career soldiers' and
12. As a result of the shift from a conscript to a volunteer force, the DOD will have
to design appropriate strategies to attract a high quality of recruits, secure the
required rate of turnover, develop functional and technical skills, and ensure
Representativeness. These strategies will relate to recruitment, selection criteria,
remuneration packages, educational opportunities, career development plans, and education
and training programmes.
13. The size and structure of the Regular Force will be derived from the force design
and structure of each Arm of Service of the SANDF.
14. The new Part-Time Force (PTF) will be made up of volunteers. Selective recruitment
may be necessary to ensure racial and gender Representativeness. The size and structure of
the PTF will be determined by the force design and structure of the SANDF as a whole.
These matters will be dealt with in the Defence Review.
15. The PTF will consist of personnel who serve on a part-time basis when required.
They will be organised, trained and equipped in such a way that they are available for
deployment alongside Regular Force members according to the demands placed on the SANDF.
16. Members of the PTF will undergo training and will be instructed in the civic
education programme on democracy.
17. In consultation with the Public Service Commission, the DOD has developed financial
and other incentives to encourage people to volunteer for part-time service. It is also
considering special measures to motivate employers to support members of their staff who
are part-time volunteers, and to prevent discrimination against these members.
18. The DOD has initiated an investigation into the feasibility and desirability of
constituting the Part-Time Force Council (PTFC) as a statutory body. The PTFC will
comprise members of the existing part-time forces, the former non-statutory forces and the
regimental associations. The primary goal of the Council is to assist in promoting and
maintaining the PTF as an integral part of the SANDF, in accordance with the standards set
for the SANDF in the Constitution. The Council shall have no command function and shall
not form part of the chain of command.
19. The SANDF will investigate on a continuous basis the need for, and the creation of,
command and other posts for its part-time members in order to provide them with greater
responsibility for command and control of this component.
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Demobilisation and rationalisation
20. As a result of integration, force levels have been greatly inflated. The current
size of the SANDF is neither cost-effective nor appropriate to the security situation.
21. A process of demobilisation and rationalisation is therefore being planned, and in
certain respects is already underway.
22. Demobilisation refers to the voluntary release of members of the former
non-statutory forces who are constitutionally part of the SANDF but who either do not wish
to serve in the Defence Force or are unable to do so for reasons of age, ill-health or
23. Since these people contributed to the struggle against apartheid, it would be
unjust to end their military careers without compensation, especially in the case of aged
and disabled military veterans. They will consequently be assisted financially, as well as
through the Special Pensions Act envisaged by the Constitution. It is a matter of great
importance that this Act is now promulgated.
24. Rationalisation will entail the reduction of the Regular Force to approved force
levels through, inter alia, the retrenchment of military personnel following integration.
Civilian members of the DOD will also be rationalised as required. This process will be
based on budgetary considerations and the future size and shape of each Arm of Service of
25. Rationalisation will take place according to the following principles: the
pursuance of operational readiness; fair labour practice; transparency; all members and
employees being equally eligible; the enhancement of productivity; the active promotion of
Representativeness; the maintenance of expertise; and the retention of people with a high
level of performance or potential.
26. Procedures, criteria and time-frames for rationalisation will be subject to
consultation with, and will be communicated timeously to, military and civilian personnel.
27. Rationalisation will also be conducted in accordance with the policy and goals of
equal opportunity and affirmative action programmes within the DOD.
28. The DOD will ensure that the process does not discriminate against members of any
of the former forces which now make up the SANDF. A formula and guidelines for achieving
equitable representation will be outlined in the Defence Review.
29. Demobilisation and rationalisation will be handled with great sensitivity. This is
both a moral obligation and a political necessity. If former soldiers are not assisted in
adapting to civilian life, they may be a burden on society and may engage in crime and
30. The DOD will therefore develop a programme to prepare former soldiers for
meaningful civilian careers. In liaison with educational institutions and employer bodies,
every effort will be made to identify educational and employment opportunities in civil
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31. This programme is essentially a socio-economic project. For budgetary purposes, it
should be regarded as part of the RDP rather than the normal defence function.
32. Further, the Cabinet has approved the establishment of a Service Corps to upgrade
the education and vocational skills of ex-combatants, and to assist in their reintegration
into civilian society. The Service Corps will offer counselling, training and settlement
schemes to assist members in finding employment in the formal and informal sectors.
33. The Service Corps has been conceived as a project of the RDP. It will operate on a
national and regional level in conjunction with the RDP and other government departments.
34. The DOD will consult the parliamentary defence committees in formulating detailed
plans for demobilisation and rationalisation, and will present these plans for approval by
Parliament once they have been finalised.
Equal opportunity and affirmative action
35. The integration of forces has substantially altered the composition of the Defence
Force. For historical reasons, however, the SANDF does not yet reflect the demographic
composition of South Africa.
36. In order to secure the legitimacy of the armed forces, the DOD is committed to the
goal of overcoming the legacy of racial and gender discrimination. It will ensure that the
SANDF, and its leadership in particular, is broadly representative of the South African
37. The DOD acknowledges the right of women to serve in all ranks and positions,
including combat roles.
38. In the light of the above, the Minister will oversee the design and implementation
of an affirmative action and equal opportunity programme. To this end, the Minister will
establish a joint work group on affirmative action and equal opportunity within the DOD.
39. The emphasis of the programme will be on the education, training and development of
black officers, service women and other previously disadvantaged personnel. Appropriate
strategies in this regard will include special education and training courses, career
development plans, and the reorientation of recruitment and promotion systems.
40. The programme will also seek to identify and eliminate discriminatory practices and
attitudes in the Defence Force. This is both a constitutional imperative and a matter of
`combat readiness'. The SANDF will not perform its functions effectively if capable people
are excluded from senior posts because of prejudice, or if these tendencies undermine
cohesion and morale.
41. Similarly, it will be necessary to review what is meant by `professional standards'
since this is a complex and controversial subject. Certain standards may be judged
objectively, such as those related to the utilisation of weaponry and equipment, but
others may be judged subjectively due to cultural bias.
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42. The programme will be applied in a manner which is consistent with the Constitution
and which avoids undermining the morale of military personnel and compromising universally
accepted standards of professionalism, proficiency and safety.
43. The Minister will present to Parliament detailed plans on the equal opportunity and
affirmative action programme in the DOD. The Minister will report annually to Parliament
on the progress made in implementing the programme.
Defence Labour Relations
44. The DOD is considering various options for appropriate labour machinery by means of
which the interests of SANDF members can be articulated and addressed. A comparison with
other countries indicates that unionisation in armed forces, even with severe limitations,
is the exception in democratic countries.
45. The International Labour Organisation (ILO) recognises the inherent difficulty of
applying the right to organise to armed forces. The ILO Convention of 1948 provides that
the extent to which this right is extended to security services is matter for national
legislation and regulations.
46. The DOD has weighed carefully whether this is an area where reasonable limitations
upon conventional labour rights should be imposed. The following factors were taken into
account: the difficult process of integration underway; the importance of the SANDF as a
guarantor of stability during the transition; and the potential for the promotion of
racial and other divisions in the SANDF.
47. Accordingly, a number of limitations will apply to serving members of the SANDF.
For example, the Labour Act of 1995 does not apply to these members. They are excluded
from the Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration envisaged in this Act, as
well as from collective bargaining under the Bargaining Council for the Public Service.
48. The Defence Act prohibits membership of trade unions and participation in strikes,
but makes provision for the introduction of regulations to govern the labour rights of
49. Notwithstanding the above, it is clear that members of the SANDF are entitled to
effective and just grievance procedures, channels of communication and other mechanisms
for ensuring that their aspirations and complaints are heard and addressed.
50. Existing channels through which uniformed members may resolve grievances include
the normal command channel, procedures for redress of wrongs as prescribed in the Military
Disciplinary Code, and new communication procedures which have been introduced for a trial
period to deal with grievances or dissatisfaction of uniformed members. A tribunal
established by the Labour Appeal Court Sitting as a Special Tribunal Act of 1995 will deal
specifically with grievances emanating from rationalisation.
51. It is also envisaged that suitably empowered mechanisms will be introduced in order
to expand the means of uniformed members to address their needs. The Military
Ombudsperson, referred to Chapter 3, may be one such mechanism.
52. Labour relations which affect civilian members of the DOD are governed by the
Public Service Act and related legislation and regulations. In addition, a special
mechanism has been created to involve the employee organisations representing civilian
members of the DOD in the rationalisation consultation process.
53. The DOD will ensure the provision of a healthy working environment for its
personnel as prescribed by the Occupational Health and Safety Act.
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CHAPTER 7: BUDGETARY CONSIDERATIONS
1. Defence budgets are typically the product of a range of considerations: the wealth
and size of a country; competing demands on resources from different sectors of government
and the population; prevailing and projected threat scenarios; the actual and anticipated
role of the Defence Force; and its doctrine and posture.
2. As indicated previously, in the South African context there is pressure to reduce
defence spending substantially:
2.1 There is an urgent requirement to divert financial resources to the RDP in order to
meet basic socio-economic needs. A failure to meet these needs will generate conflict and
2.2 There is no conventional military threat in the short- to medium-term.
2.3 South Africa has no aggressive intentions towards any state.
2.4 South Africa enjoys co-operative relations with neighbouring states. The
non-military threats emanating from instability and underdevelopment in Southern Africa
should be tackled primarily through political and socio-economic measures.
2.5 The ending of the Cold War has given rise to disarmament and demilitarisation in
many parts of the world, including Southern Africa.
3. At the same time, there are several reasons to avoid making radical cuts to the
3.1 The SANDF has to maintain a long-term capability to fulfil its primary function. It
is not possible to create such capability from a low level of preparedness if the need
suddenly arises. It is therefore imperative to retain a sustainable core force and to
upgrade and, where necessary, replace obsolete equipment [Chapter 5].
3.2 The SANDF should be a balanced, modern and technologically advanced military force.
3.3 The widespread internal deployment of the SANDF in co-operation with the police
necessitates retention of the ability to mobilise substantial numbers of troops.
3.4 South Africa is expected to play an active role in regional defence co-operation
and peace support operations in Africa.
3.5 The integration of forces has raised force levels substantially; a process of
rationalisation and demobilisation will consequently be undertaken. The success of
integration, demobilisation and rationalisation requires adequate funding.
3.6 As a result of the improved external strategic environment and changing government
spending priorities, the defence budget has been cut by over 50% in real terms over the
past five years. This has had a significant impact on the military's anti-aircraft,
armour, air and maritime capabilities in particular.
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4. It is evident from the above that there are competing pressures on the defence
budget. This is true of most countries, particularly in post-conflict situations. In
developing countries such as South Africa, there is especially strong pressure to
reallocate resources from the military to socio-economic development.
5. In democratic societies the debate around defence spending is informed by public
opinion and the professional views of the DOD and other government departments. The
resolution of the debate, and the approval of major weapons procurement projects, is the
prerogative of Parliament on an annual and longer-term basis.
6. The Defence Review will entail comprehensive long-range planning in the light of
approved defence policy and the new political and strategic environment. The Review will
present, for the consideration of Parliament and the public, detailed and well-motivated
budgetary forecasts and proposals; specific policies regarding the provisioning of
logistic resources; and the identification of appropriate technology to optimize the cost
effectiveness of the core force.
7. The Defence Review will also include an examination of prevailing conditions in the
SANDF with the view to rationalising current spending, eliminating waste and unnecessary
duplication, and determining the most efficient means of managing human and material
8. Prior to the completion of the Defence Review, the DOD will provide Parliament with
the information and analysis required to make sound decisions on the defence budget.
9. Finally, the establishment of a relatively small Regular Force and a sufficiently
large Part-Time Force will be one of the principal means of ensuring a cost-effective
defence capability [Chapter 6]. It is important to reiterate that demobilisation and
rationalisation will generate additional costs in the medium-term but yield considerable
savings in the long-term.
CHAPTER 8: ARMS CONTROL AND DEFENCE INDUSTRY
1. On 30 August 1995 Cabinet approved new interim policy on arms control and the
defence industry. This Chapter is based largely on that policy, as contained in the
Cabinet memorandum on the `Rationale and Proposed Principles Governing Conventional Arms
2. As noted earlier, the retention of a core force capability will entail the
maintenance, upgrading and, where necessary, the replacement of weapons and equipment.
3. The services of an efficient defence industry are required to address these needs
and enable the SANDF to meet its constitutional obligations. The industry will permit the
cost-effective purchase of certain products and systems, ensure life-cycle maintenance and
support of such systems, and perform refurbishment and upgrades of existing equipment.
4. The defence industry must have access to international markets in order to
facilitate cost-effective performance and reduce the unit costs of producing items for the
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5. However, the defence equipment required by the SANDF cannot and should not be
procured exclusively from the local industry. Many complex systems cannot be produced
domestically and will have to be imported. Management expertise for the specialised
procurement function is located within the DOD.
6. In circumstances of diminishing domestic defence expenditure and falling global arms
sales, the industry will be encouraged to convert production capability to civilian
manufacture without losing the key technological capability needed for military
7. Policies will be formulated to establish the specific and limited conditions under
which the defence industry will be subsidised.
8. In the light of new defence policy, the ending of the arms embargoes against South
Africa and the restrictive approach to arms transfers outlined below, the government will
prepare a White Paper on the Defence Industry in consultation with Parliament,
stakeholders and interest groups.
Principles governing conventional arms trade
9. The import and export of conventional arms, and the transit of arms through South
Africa, shall be subject to a control process and permit system under the auspices of a
cabinet committee, the National Conventional Arms Control Committee (NCACC).
10. In a competitive international market, it is important that South Africa and its
defence industry be regarded as a responsible and reliable supplier of defence materiel.
11. The government will support the export initiatives of the defence industry by
permitting it to contract and honour obligations which have been duly approved. However,
the government reserves the right to prohibit or withdraw such support should it be in
conflict with international or national interests at any time.
12. The principle of openness and transparency relating to arms trade shall apply. This
will be limited only by national security interests.
13. New arms control measures are based on the principles of the United Nations
Charter, international law, recognised international arms control systems, and a balance
of economic, ethical, political, military and security considerations.
14. A legitimate arms control system shall ensure a responsible approach to arms
transfers. In this regard, South Africa affirms the following:
14.1 That in accordance with the principles and aims of the United Nations Charter, a
reduction of world military expenditure could have a significant positive impact for the
social and economic development of all peoples.
14.2 That sovereign states have the inherent right of self-defence in terms of the UN
14.3 The need to ensure that conventional arms transfers are not used in violation of
the purposes and principles of the UN Charter.
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14.4 That excessive and destabilising conventional arms build-ups pose a threat to
national, regional and international peace and security. Arms sales should continuously be
evaluated and reviewed, especially with regard to countries in war-prone regions, in order
to avoid the possible escalation of regional conflict.
14.5 The need for effective national mechanisms for controlling the transfer of
conventional arms and related technologies.
15. In order to further the general aim of an international co-operative and common
approach to security, South Africa will promote and exercise due restraint in the transfer
of conventional arms and related technologies by taking the following factors into
15.1 Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms in the recipient country, with
reference to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human
and People's Rights. Due consideration will be given especially in cases where political,
social, cultural, religious and legal rights are seriously and systematically violated by
the authorities of that country.
15.2 The security situation in the recipient country and surrounding region, in the
light of existing tensions or armed conflicts.
15.3 The record of compliance by the recipient country with regard to international
arms control agreements and treaties.
15.4 The nature and cost of the arms to be transferred in relation to the circumstances
of the recipient country, including its legitimate security and defence needs and the
objective of the least diversion of human and economic resources for armaments.
15.5 The degree to which arms sales are supportive of South Africa's national and
16. South Africa shall not transfer arms to countries which systematically violate or
suppress human rights and fundamental freedoms.
17. Further, South Africa shall avoid arms transfers and trade which would be likely
17.1 be used for the violation or suppression of human rights and fundamental freedoms;
17.2 contravene South Africa's international commitments, in particular its obligations
under arms embargoes adopted by the UN Security Council and other arms control agreements
or responsibilities in terms of internationally accepted custom;
17.3 contribute to the escalation of regional conflicts, endanger peace by introducing
destabilising military capabilities into a region, or otherwise contribute to regional
instability and negatively influence the balance of power;
17.4 be diverted within the recipient country or re-exported for purposes contrary to
the principles stated in this Chapter;
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17.5 have a negative impact on South Africa's diplomatic and trade relations with other
17.6 support or encourage terrorism; or
17.7 be used for purposes other than the legitimate defence and security needs of the
Arms control process and structures
18. Conventional armaments and related technology may not be imported, transferred
through South Africa or marketed or exported abroad without a duly approved permit.
19. Export permits will not be granted in the absence of an End-User Certificate (EUC)
issued by the importing government. The EUC should indicate clearly the identity of the
issuing authority, the specifications and quantity of the armaments in question, and a
commitment by the purchaser not to resell or transfer the arms without the permission of
the South African government.
20. In the event of an importing country acting in breach of this commitment, the
transgression will be publicised internationally. All further arms sales to that country
shall be prohibited.
21. Applications for permits shall be assessed on a case-by-case basis in relation to
i) a system of product classification and ii) the principles and guidelines outlined
22. The DOD will have interim responsibility for this process, with the Secretary for
Defence as the accountable officer.
23. The first phase of the process will entail the technical processing of permit
applications. The body which undertakes this task has been transferred from Armscor to the
24. The applications shall thereafter be subject to a multi-departmental review process
and to scrutiny by the Secretary for Defence and the Directors General of the Departments
of Foreign Affairs and Trade and Industry.
25. These officials shall make recommendations to the newly established NCACC which
will serve as the ministerial control, policy and decision-making authority. The Committee
shall be accountable to Cabinet for these functions.
26. The Committee shall comprise the Ministers and Deputy Ministers of Defence, Trade
and Industry, Foreign Affairs and Safety and Security; the Ministers of General Services
and Arts, Culture, Science and Technology; and the Deputy Minister of Intelligence
Services. The Committee shall be chaired by a Minister who does not have a line function
interest concerning arms trade.
27. An independent Inspectorate will be established to ensure that all levels of the
process are subject to scrutiny and oversight, and that arms trade is conducted strictly
in accordance with the policies and guidelines of the NCACC. The Inspectorate will make
periodic reports to the appropriate parties and the standing parliamentary defence
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International arms control regimes and treaties
28. South Africa is committed to the international cause of non-proliferation of
weapons of mass destruction (ie nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and related
technology, as well as advanced missile systems and missiles as defined by the Missile
Technology Control Regime).
29. The Non-Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Act (1993) controls the export
of technology, materiel and equipment used in the production of weapons of mass
destruction and other advanced weapons systems.
30. South Africa became a State Party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991,
and concluded a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement with the International Atomic Energy
Agency shortly thereafter.
31. South Africa became a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) in April 1995.
The NSG monitors dual-use materials, equipment and technologies used in the development or
manufacture of nuclear weapons.
32. South Africa has been a State Party to the Biological Weapons Convention since
1972, and signed the Chemical Weapons Convention in 1993.
33. South Africa has applied for membership of the Missile Technology Control Regime
which regulates the transfer of equipment and technology used in the production of
missiles which are capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction.
34. South Africa has applied for membership of the United Nations Conference on
Disarmament, the premier international negotiating forum on disarmament.
35. In September 1995 South Africa acceded to the Convention on Prohibitions or
Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons. The Convention restricts and/or
prohibits the use of weapons such as land mines and booby-traps which cause indiscriminate
death and injury to civilians.
36. In July 1994 South Africa placed an indefinite moratorium on the export of land
37. South Africa will provide data and information on arms transfers as required by the
United Nations resolution establishing the Register of Conventional Arms. South Africa
will promote the inclusion of small arms transfers in the Register.
38. South Africa will promote the establishment of a regional arms register which
records the transfer of conventional arms and light weapons in Southern Africa.
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CHAPTER 9: LAND AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
1. The SANDF controls approximately 500 000 hectares of state-owned land. It requires
the retention of dedicated land for effective force development and preparation, including
field exercises and weapons testing. Nevertheless, three sets of issues have to be
addressed regarding land which is currently utilised by the military.
2. First, some of the land utilised by the Defence Force was previously occupied by
people who were subject to forced removals during the apartheid era. This has given rise
to a number of land claims, and more could follow in the future.
3. The DOD will participate in negotiations on these claims in a spirit of social
justice. Decisions on restitution are not the sole prerogative of the DOD, however, but
will be made in the context of new national land policy and in consultation with other
government departments and key stakeholders including, especially, affected communities.
4. Second, in the interests of cost-effective utilisation of resources, the SANDF will
undertake a process of rationalisation regarding land which it controls. Land may
consequently become available for redistribution in consultation with relevant role
5. Third, since state land is a national asset, the SANDF has a moral and legal
obligation to utilise its properties in a responsible fashion. It has to attend to the
environmental and ecological maintenance of the natural resources under its control,
whether they are intended for military or civilian use in the future. These matters are
6. The Minister and the Chief of the Defence Force are responsible for ensuring the
exercise of proper ecological management and control of military properties. This will be
done in co-operation with other government departments and environmental organisations.
7. The Environmental Services of the SANDF engages in the following activities:
environmental planning and research; ecological and environmental management of military
properties; cultural resource management; and environmental education. These activities
are part of the Logistics function and are integrated into the Arms of Service.
8. The mission of the Environmental Services is to ensure the environmental suitability
of military facilities for present and future military and national use.
9. SANDF policy on the environment will be consistent with national policy and will
include the following guidelines:
9.1 the protection of species and habitats and the conservation of bio-diversity and
9.2 the protection of the environment against disturbance, deterioration, poisoning or
destruction as a result of human activity and structures;
9.3 the maintenance and improvement of environments which contribute to the quality of
life of South African citizens; and
9.4 the provision of a healthy working environment for its personnel.
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10. In the light of these guidelines, the planning and execution of military activities
will take account of the environmental implications. The activities should not jeopardise
the long-term potential of land and other natural resources.
11. The SANDF is committed to the application of the Integrated Environmental
Management Procedure in the planning and establishment of physical development on land
under its jurisdiction. Where necessary, environmental impact assessments will be
undertaken and rehabilitation measures will be applied to counter, as far as possible, the
negative impact of development, operations and other activities on the environment.
12. Military properties are regarded and managed as conservation areas. The use of
these properties therefore requires the integration of environmental and military
considerations. The properties should be accessible to the public for environmental
purposes insofar as this does not prejudice security and safety considerations.
13. The SANDF will participate in environmental forums and enlist the support of
experts in refining and implementing the policy outlined above.
14. The SANDF will endeavour to instill a sense of awareness and responsibility towards
the environment in the training of recruits.
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