Adv Ramatlhodi Participated in many student activities while at University of the North from 1977 to 1979. He was founder member and first Chairperson of Arts and Drama Association at the University of the North and Chairperson of the Central, Cultural Committee (which served as the students' only voice after the banning of the Students' Representative Council (SRC).
He was a founder member of Azanian Students' Organisation (AZAPO), later known as South African Students' Congress (SASCO); and he was a member of a team which formed the Congress of South African Students (COSAS).
He went into exile in Lesotho on 17 July 1980 where he continued with his studies. During this time he was involved in various student activities. He served as second Secretary for the Committee of Action and Solidarity for South African Students (COSSAS) from 1981 until 1983 and then as a Secretary for Public and Foreign Affairs of the National University of Lesotho (NUL) students' Council (SRC) responsible for liason with external organisations and issuing statements on behalf of the SRC-co-ordinating public functions. He also served as a member of the national University of Lesotho Admissions Committe between 1982 and 1983.
Between 1983 and 1984 he served as a President of SRC at the National University Lesotho; member of the University Council and also the highest executive authority of the students' union and he was involved in negotiations with management and other structures of the NUL.
He headed the ANC Regional Political and Military Council of the Zimbabwe Mission from 1986 until 1988; and re-called to Zambia to became Political secretary and assistant to the then ANC President, Oliver Tambo. In this capacity he served as the Secretary of the ANC Control Commission, a body responsible for the co-ordination of the entire liberation movement's activities and served Mr Mandela in the same capacity.
He returned to South Africa in June 1991 and from 1992 until 1994 he was employed by the University of the North as Deputy Registrar, Executive Assistant to the Rector and lecturer in the Public International Law and he also served as a Chairperson of the ANC Limpopo Province until 1991.
From May 1994 until 22 April 2004 he was the Premier of Limpopo Province and a member of the National Executive Committee of the ANC and in 2005 he Led the ANC delegations to oversee the election process on the invitation of Zimbabwe government.